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BOTULINUM TOXIN: PATHOGENESIS AND CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

January 10th, 2011

Botulinum toxin is produced primarily by Clostridium botulinum, a spore-forming obligate anaerobe. The toxin targets neurons and mainly causes a flaccid muscle paralysis. The use of botulinum toxin as a biological weapon would most likely take the form of aerosolization or food contamination. This concern has heightened since Iraq's acknowledgement in 1995 of the production of 19,000 L of botulinum toxin, three times the amount needed to annihilate the entire human population Read More...

FEVER OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN: SOME SELECTED CAUSES

December 23rd, 2010

Tuberculosis For tuberculosis to cause an FUO (Fever of Unknown Origin), it must typically manifest as either disseminated or primarily extrapulmonary disease. Approximately 25% of the time, a tuberculin skin test will be negative in this situation. The diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, in particular, can be challenging Read More...